Forged flanges are used for pipelines requiring the presence of elements with a high margin of safety. Forging is the process of metal working with pressure, in which the workpieces are exposed to the mechanical action of the hammer. When using the forging method, both hot and cold metal can be treated. Methods of forging are several - machine (forging by hydraulic, pneumatic or steam hammer), hand (hammer and anvil) and stamping.
Machine forging is the most common method of obtaining a flanged billet, and involves the use of special equipment to effect mechanical action on the flange billet. This can be a hammer, a hydraulic press or a special forging machine. Hand forging is a process of mechanical action on the workpiece, which is put on the anvil and hit it with a hammer. This process is quite laborious, so it is inferior in its prevalence of machine forging.